Small and medium industries
can be developed to make these items. New Words: Horticultural crops, field crops. Introduction and economic importance
We have come to know about horticultural crops in the previous lesson. We will know about field crop in this lesson. Field crops are divided into six types on the basis of their use, such as:
- Cereal crop: Paddy, wheat, maize, etc. 2. Pulse crop: Lentil, green-gram, chickpea, pigeon-pea kesari, etc. 3. Oil crop: Mustard, sesame, sunflower, etc. 4. Fibre crop: Jute, cotton, kenaf, etc. 5. Sugar crop: Sugar-cane, sugar-beet, etc. 6. Cattle Feed (Fodder crops): Cow pea (Felon), guinea, para and napier grass, etc.
Figure: Carpus cotton Figure: Sugar-beet Figure: Napier Grass Field crops have some special characteristics that make them separate from horticultural crops. Field crops are cultivated at a large scale. It does not require intensive cultivation like that of horticultural crops. These are cultivated as human and animal feed. It is quickly perishable. As we are introduced to field crops, we can certainly assume their economic importance. Cereal, pulse and oil crops are our food crops. Paddy, wheat, maize are used as the main human foods among cereal crops. Pulse crops meet the demands of our protein. We get edible oil from different oil crops. Wheat, maize and pulses are used as foods for animal and feed for birds and fishes. Para, guinea, napier, pigeon-pea are cultivated as cattle feed. These are fed in green condition. As a result, animal and bird raising, and fish cultivation have commercially expanded.
Sugar is made from sugar-cane and sugar-beet. Sugar-cane cultivators in our country earn ready cash by supplying sugar-cane to sugar mills. Thread, cloth, rope, sack, carpet etc. are made from fibre crops. Among the fibre crops jute is one of the greatest ones in our country. Jute and jute-made products have huge demand at home and abroad. We earn a lot of foreign currency by exporting jute and jute-made products.
Task : Write down the name of some field crops that have not been mentioned here and explain their uses. New Words: Cereal or grain crop, fibre crop, fodder crop. Red amaranth (Lalsakh or red herb) cultivation method
Red amaranth is a popular vegetable in our country. Red amaranth is cultivated more or less almost everywhere in Bangladesh. It contains a lot of vitamins. Soil : Red amaranth is cultivated in almost all types of soil all the year round. However, loamy and sandy-loamy soil is best for its cultivation. The production of red am aranth in our country is abundant at the outset of inter. E Red amaranth can be cultivated in high land during Figure : Red Amaranth summer Variety : There are many varieties of red amaranth. However two improved varietis are Altapati and BARI Lalsakh-1. The leaves and stem of Altapati variety are vermilion red. The leaves and stem of BARI Lalsakh are red. The flower of this amaranth is red and its seed is round in shape. Land preparation : The seed of red amaranth is very small. So the land is prepared loose by ploughing 4-5 times and laddering. Red amaranth is a short duration crop. So 40 kg of cow-dung, 400 gm of Urea, 300 gm of TSP and 250 gm of MOP fertilizers have to be applied per decimal land. After seven days of seed germination, an amount of 400 gm extra urea fertilizer per decimal land will be top dressed and mixed with the soil. Seed Sowing: The seeds of red amaranth are sown by broadcasting and in lines. If sown in lines, nursing is convenient and there is more yield. A lm wide and 15 cm high seed-bed is prepared to sow seeds in the rainy season. A 30 cm irrigation drain is to be kept between two seed-beds. There may be an equal distribution of seeds everywhere, if seeds are mixed with sand at the time of sowing. 10 gm of seeds is enough per decimal land. If sown in lines, with the help of stick making 1.5-2.0 cm deep line having 20 cm distance then seed should be broadcast in lines and the soil should be levelled.
Inter cultural operation : The nursing that is taken from seed-sowing or seedling-planting to crop-harvesting is called inter cultural operation. No irrigation is necessary, if there is sufficient moisture in the soil at the time of sowing. But if there is not sufficient moisture in the soil, irrigation is necessary. When seeds germinate, seedlings should be kept 5 cm apart in the rows and other plants must be lifted as thinning out within a week. The weed must be cleaned out by weeder and the soil should be mulche after irrigation. Crop harvesting : Red amaranth can be collected after 20-25 days of sowing seeds. Firstly tall plants need to be lifted. Thus amaranth can be lifted after two or three days of interval. The plants of red amaranth is lifted with roots. Then they are washed away, tied in bundles and marketed. Crop harvesting should be complete for leafy vegetable before the stem becomes hard. Yield : 45-55 kg red amaranth is obtained from per decimal of land if improved method of cultivation is applied.
Task : Make a list of agricultural materials needed for cultivating red amaranth in five decimal land.
New Words : Top dressing, cultivation in bed, soil moisture availability, inter
Lesson 4: Pepper cultivation method Pepper is a spice crop in Bangladesh. Green and red pepers are used for hot taste or pungency. Green chilli contains more vitamin C. Now-a-days a kind of pepper is found which is less hot. This is called capsicum. This pepper is used as salad. Variety : There are many breeds of peppers existing in different areas of Bangladesh; such as Bindu, Challissa, Dhani, Ubda, Chittagong, Comilla, Bogra, etc. Moreover, an einen besondere approved variety named Bangla Lanka (Bari Pepper-1) is Figure: Hot nenner suitable for cultivation round the year.